Exercise 2: Element of Art : Form, Space and Texture (Week 3 & 4)

  1. What is FORM?

In terms of art, form refers to objects that are 3-Dimensional, or have length, width, and height.

Form has length, width, and height


Geometric forms have specific names associated with them and are typically man-made.

Geometric Forms


Organic forms do not have specific names associated with them and are often associated with naturally occurring forms.

Organic Forms

The illusion of form by understanding how light reacts on the object:

How to create the illusion of form

Light reacts on objects and is communicated to viewers through several factors.  Adjusting these areas with values of the local color will result in the illusion of form in a drawing or painting.

  • The highlight is the area where light is hitting the object directly.
  • The midtone is the middle value of the local color of the object.
  • The core shadow is the area(s) that is shaded on the object.
  • The cast shadow is the area(s) that is shaded on surrounding objects and surfaces because of blocked light.
  • The reflected highlight is the area on an object that is lighter because of reflected light off of surrounding objects.

2. What is SPACE?

The Element of Design Space refers to the area within, around, above or below an object or objects. It is important to creating and understanding both two dimensional or three dimensional works of art. With three dimensional art the space things occupy is real as is the space around object. In two dimensional art this is definitely not the case. Two dimensionall art exists on a flat surface, so if something looks three dimensional- it is an illusion! Even the most realistic paintings or photographs are illusions. Two dimensional artists use a number of “tricks” for creating the illusion of depth in their art.

Creating the Illusion of Space

  • Size: larger objects appear closer, smaller further away
  • Overlap : partially covering one shape (object with another makes the one in front appear closer.
  • Placement: where a shape or object is in relationship to the horizon line creates depth. Things closer to the horizon line appear further away. Objects closer to the bottom or top of your paper (canvas, etc.) appear closer.
  • Atmospheric perspective:objects as they recede into the distance begin to lose color brightness and detail.
  • Shading: adding light and shadow to the surface of objects to mimic the way real objects would appear under the same lighting.
  • Linear Perspective: This is a system of drawing developed during the Renaissance period of history (about 1400-1500). It use lines that converge on vanishing points to achieve a more realistic illusion of space. Linear perspective is described by the number of vanishing points used- one point, two point or three point. Type most often are used alone, but they may be combined in complex drawings or painitngs.

Examples of space:

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3.What is TEXTURE?

Texture refers to the surface quality in a work of art. We associate textures with the way that things look or feel. Everything has some type of texture. We describe things as being rough, smooth, silky, shiny, fuzzy and so on. Some things feel just as they appear; this is called real or actually texture. Some things look like they are rough but are actually smooth. Texture that is created to look like something it is not, is called visual or implied texture.

  • Real Texture

Visual texture is the real thing. Real texture cannot be represented here because a computer screen, even with the highest quality photgraphs can only create simulate textures. However for the purpose of providing examples assume that these images are real. For examples:

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  • Visual or Implied Texture

Visual or implied texture can be simulated or invented. Simulated texture is the type that is created to look like something it is not. For example, in drawing or painting of a cat where its fur is made to look like real fur. Invertn texture, on the other hand may look rough, smooth or any other feel but is purely made up by the artist. It does look like “real” texture. Examples:

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4. Perspective drawing

Perspective Drawing is a technique used to represent three-dimensional images on a two-dimensional picture plane. In our series of lessons on perspective drawing we explain the various methods of constructing an image with perspective and show how these are used by artists and illustrators.

Perspective was developed in the 15th century by the architects, Leon Baptista Alberti (1404-72) and Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446). For 500 years, perspective drawing remained one of the basic principles of western art until it was challenged by the ideas of the cubist at the start of the 20th century.

Types of perspective:

  • One-point perspective

A drawing has onepoint perspective when it contains only one vanishing point on the horizon line. This type of perspective is typically used for images of roads, railway tracks, hallways, or buildings viewed so that the front is directly facing the viewer.

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  • Two-point perspective

Two point perspective drawing is a type of linear perspective. Linear perspective is a method using lines to create the illusion of space on a 2D surface. Two point perspective uses two points placed on the horizon line. Three point perspective uses three vanishing points.

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  • Three-point perspective

Linear perspective in which parallel lines along the width of an object meet at two separate points on the horizon and vertical lines on the object meet at a point on the perpendicular bisector of the horizon line.

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  • One-point Perspective


  • Two-point perspective


  • Three-point perspective










Exercise 4: Art Through The Ages: Modern Art (Week 7)

  • 19th Century

Prior to the 19th century, artists were most often commissioned to make artwork by wealthy patrons, or institutions like the church. Much of this art depicted religious or mythological scenes that told stories and were intended to instruct the viewer. During the 19th century, many artists started to make art about people, places, or ideas that interested them, and of which they had direct experience. With the publication of psychologist Sigmund Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams (1899) and the popularization of the idea of a subconscious mind, many artists began exploring dreams, symbolism, and personal iconography as avenues for the depiction of their subjective experiences.

Challenging the notion that art must realistically depict the world, some artists experimented with the expressive use of color, non-traditional materials, and new techniques and mediums. One of these was photography, whose invention in the 1830s introduced a new method for depicting and reinterpreting the world. The Museum of Modern Art collects work made after 1880, when the atmosphere was ripe for avant-garde artists to take their work in new, unexpected, and “modern” directions.

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  • 20th Century

The twentieth century was one of particular worldwide upheaval, ranging from wars to economic downturns to radical political movements. No one can disagree that the years between 1900 and 2000 were years of extreme change for artists all over the world. These changes were boldly reflected in the works of avante-garde artists throughout the century. Classical art was being challenged more and more as waves of nationalism and imperialism spread over the world in the early half of the twentieth century.

Artists explored extreme and varying themes in the years before and after World War I, and those same themes were revisited in the aftermath of World War II, creating an interesting parallel. This article is divided into two sections: 1900-1945 and 1945-2000 and focuses on art themes that captured the talents and ideas of some of the most well known artists around the world.

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Art Movements Timeline from 1900-1945


Art Movements from 1900-1945. Timeline created by Shanna11. Click on image for larger size.

source: https://owlcation.com/humanities/20th-Century-Art-Movements-with-Timeline

  • Art After 1945

While other museums were collecting on an encyclopedically broad basis, the Kunstmuseum Bonn has long been concentrating on acquiring German works of art. Therefore, only here in Bonn is it possible to experience the history of German art after 1945 in such qualitative breadth and scope, providing those who are interested in art with a true survey of its development.

All of the most significant art trends and tendencies may be found here, without any one stylistic direction receiving any particular emphasis. The principle is rather to highlight the diversity of artistic approaches, emphasized here by the fact that a lot of room is left for the artists’ self-presentation. Instead of representative individual works, the Kunstmuseum Bonn presents entire rooms devoted to specific artists, impressively showing the unmistakable hand of each one.  For example, the Kunstmuseum shows groups of works by Blinky Palermo, Imi Knoebel, Helmut Federle, Gerhard Richter, Sigmar Polke, Katharina Grosse, Daniel Richter, Michel Majerus, Rebecca Horn, Hanne Darboven, Wolfgang Tillmanns, Gerd and Uwe Tobias and many others. But already these names indicate that collection is presented as an exciting, and at the same time, instructive and entertaining interplay of artistic placements and experiments.

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Image result for Art After 1945 Sigmar Polke, Ohne Titel, 1981

Image result for Art After 1945  Bust Of A Woman With A Hat (1962)

source: http://www.kunstmuseum-bonn.de/en/collections/german-art-after-1945/




EXERCISE 1: Element of Art: Line and Color (Week 1 & 2)

The Basics drawing marks: points, line area (Landscape)

  1. An element of art that is used to define shape, contours and outlines also to suggest mass and volume. The characteristics lines is direction, focus, feeling, length and width.
  • Width – thick, thin, tapering and uneven
  • Length – Long, short, continuous and broken
  • Direction – horizontal, vectical, diagonal, curving, obiliqu and parallel
  • Focus – Sharp, blurry and choppy.
  • Feeling – Sharp. Jagged and smooth.

Line a mark that spans a distance between two points (orthe path of a moving point). Lines are EVERYWHERE. There are FIVE types of line VERTICAL HORIZONTAL ZIG-ZAG DIAGONAL CURVED.Image result for types of lines

      2. Color wheel

A color wheel (also referred to as a color circle) is a visual representation of colors arranged according to their chromatic relationship. Begin a color wheel by positioning primary hues equidistant from one another, then create a bridge between primaries using secondary and tertiary colors.

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3. Primary, secondary & tertiary color

  • Primary color
  • Medical Definition of primary color. : any of a set of colors (as red, yellow, and blue or red, green, and blue) from which all other colors may be derived.Related image
  • Secondary color 

secondary color in Science. secondary color. A color produced by mixing two additive primary colors in equal proportions. The secondary colors are cyan (a mixture of blue and green), magenta (a mixture of blue and red), and yellow (a mixture of green and red).

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  • Tertiary Color

Tertiary colors are combinations of primary and secondary colours. There are six tertiary colors; red-orange, yellow-orange, yellow-green, blue-green, blue-violet, and red-violet. An easy way to remember these names is to place the primary name before the other colour. So the tertiary colour produced when mixing the primary colour blue with the secondary colour green, is called ‘blue-green’.

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  • Monochromatic color

 Monochromatic color scheme. From Colorpedia. Various shades within a monochromatic color scheme, and their mutual contrast. Monochromatic (or mono) is a color scheme based on only one, single color tint. It uses only variations (shades) of a single hue, made by altering the saturation and brightness of the base color.

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  • Neutral color                                                                                                                           The meaning of neutral color is modest, quiet, pale, light, harmonious.

Implications: Natural, timeless, classic, unbiased, harmless

Associations: Examples, Stone, sand, coral, packaging.

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A continuance, a flow, or a feeling of movement get by the repitition of regulated visual information.

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One object or shape repeated pattern is a combinatition of elements in a recurring and regular arrangement. A combination of elements repeated, but with variations.

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Movement is the path the viewer’s eye takes through the work of art, often to focal
areas. Such movement can be directed along lines, edges, shape, and color within the
work of art.

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Balance is the distribution of the visual weight of objects, colors, texture, and space.
If the design was a scale, these elements should be balanced to make a design feel
stable. In symmetrical balance, the elements used on one side of the design are
similar to those on the other side; in asymmetrical balance, the sides are different
but still look balanced. In radial balance, the elements are arranged around a central
point and may be similar.

There are a few types of balance:

  • Symmetry: A form of balance achieved by the use of identical balance compositional units on either side of a vertical axis within the picture plane.Image result for principles of design symmetry balance


  • Approximate Symmetry: A form of balance achieved by the use of similarly balanced compositional units on either side of a vertical axis within the picture plane.Related image


  • Asymmetry: A form of balance attained when the visual units on balance either side of a vertical axis are not identical but are placed in positions within the picture plane so as to create a “felt” equilibrium of the total form concept.

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  • Radial Symmetry: A form of balance than is even, radiating out from a central points to all four quadrants of the shape’s constraining plane.Image result for principles of design radial balance


Proportion is the feeling of unity created when all parts (sizes, amounts, or number)
relate well with each other. When drawing the human figure, proportion can refer
to the size of the head compared to the rest of the body.

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Variety is the use of several elements of design to hold the viewer’s attention and
to guide the viewer’s eye through and around the work of art.

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Emphasis is the part of the design that catches the viewer’s attention. Usually the
artist will make one area stand out by contrasting it with other areas. The area could
be different in size, color, texture, shape, etc.

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Harmony in art and design is a satisfying visual effect combining similar and relevant elements. It should look as though it goes together all of the design elemenr to make a harmonious whole. For example: adjacent colors on color wheels, similar shapes, etc.

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Unity is the feeling of harmony between all parts of the work of art, which creates
a sense of completeness.

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project 2- Final Project

Step 1: Drawing a horse shape


Step 2: Using a medium-sized wire to form a horse skeleton


Step 3: Example of  horse body shape


Step 4: Use tape to attach a horse skeleton


Step 5:  Put a sheet of paper on the frame of a horse that has been formed


Step 6: Tape is used to attach a clump of paper


Step 7: The body of a horse that is pasted with papers.


Step 8: The tissue is soaked and worn


Step 9:  Insert the glue in the container containing the tissue


Step 10: The tissue blended with the glue is put on the whole horseJpeg


Step 11: Horses wrapped in aluminium foil


Step 12: In the process, tape is used to place aluminum foil


Step 13: Then, the wire is used to wrap the whole horse in order to be stable


Step14: Hard paper cut out to place


Step 15: Tissues are wrapped around the whole paper


Step 16:  Wire embroidery to strengthen horse position


Step 17: Wire embroidery to strengthen horse position


Step 18:  Horse  body knocked to form


Step 19: Use hot glue gum to pack aluminum foil


Step 20:  Coloring horse by using acrylic media


Step 21: Horse ear is formed by wire


Step 22:  Ready horses as my final project



Step 1: Drawing on canvas


Step 2: Put tape on canvas

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Step 3: colour the canvas


Step 4: Result after colour the background


Step 5: Remove the tape that has been patched


Step 6: Result after remove the tape


Step 7: Draw subject matter pattern on canvas

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Step 8: Result/ final project




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Pallete watercolor

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Marker pen

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Celia Smith

“Born in 1974 Celia studied Fine Art Sculpture at Wimbledon School of Art. Having experimented with many different materials, wire became her favoured medium, with which she creates animated sculptures of birds.

Growing up as a farmer’s daughter, Celia developed a passion for the natural environment and birds in particular are her inspiration. A lot of her time is spent drawing and studying domestic and native British birds from life, capturing their movement and character is her primary concern. Celia draws with wire, as others draw with pencil, for her creating sculptures out of wire is like drawing in three dimensions. She will travel on location to sketch particular species in their habitat and often small wire studies and even life-size pieces are made directly in front of the subject.

She finds that wire has a spontaneity that can give her sculptures a feeling of life and energy. Her materials are mainly sourced from scrap yards, each visit brings new colours and textures which helps to inspire the next creation. The wires may have previously been used for telephone and electrical wiring, or perhaps some rusty fencing found abandoned in a field.”

— Hybrid Gallery, June 2015


  • ‘Best maker in South West’, The Contemporary Craft Fair, Bovey Tracey, Devon, June 2007
  • ‘Wetlands For Life’ – Bursary from Society of Wildlife Artists (SWLA) and Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust (WWT), Sep 2005
  • Awarded First in Wire Art Awards, Gardenz Show, Christchurch, New Zealand, Oct 2000

Workshops and Residencies

  • The Feathered Aviator– Workshops in 5 Cirencester primary schools to make carrier pigeons for the installation to commemorate WW1, June 2014
  •  Specialist Crafts – Teaching a series of national workshops for teachers in using wire, April 2014 –ongoing
  •  Skills in the Making – in partnership with NSEAD, Training workshops for teachers, Jan – May 2013
  • Artist in Residence – Make and Create – studio set-up in the Fritz Hanson Furniture & Design flagship store, London, May 2013
  • AA2A Award – working in Gloucestershire College Forest of Dean Campus using the printmaking facilities to experiment with printmaking with wire, Jan – April 2013
  • Artist in residence Shetland Islands – worked in three primary schools making sculptures using indigenous basket making techniques, Jan – May 2006

Examples of celia smith’s artwork:

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1- Example Of Geometric

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2- motive/pattern and study the colour

monochrome colour

Monochromatic color schemes are derived from a single base hue and extended using its shades, tones and tints. Tints are achieved by adding white and shades and tones are achieved by adding a darker color, grey or black.
Example of monochrome colour:

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3- Motive/pattern












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